温斯顿·丘吉尔高燃演讲:We shall fight on the beaches


以下文段来自知乎https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/30352634

丘吉尔是贵族家庭出身,早年求学于英国著名的哈罗公学(仅次于伊顿公学),后面毕业于桑赫斯特皇家军事学院的骑兵专业,随后被英国情报部门看中,负责收集西班牙军队所使用枪弹的情报。

也就是在那个时候,丘吉尔爱上了写作。1896年丘吉尔随部队调往印度并在那里阅读了大量的历史和哲学作品,并以记者的身份采访英国的军事行动。

这些经历也为他后来的写作和演讲奠定了基础。二战爆发期间,当选为首相的丘吉尔在战争中发表了众多鼓舞人心的演讲,被誉为自从古罗马时代的西塞罗以来西方历史上最激动人心的演说家。战后还撰写了《第二次世界大战回忆录》以及《英语国家史略》等作品。他在文学和演讲上的成就也为他赢得了1953年的诺贝尔文学奖,颁奖委员会给出的获奖理由是:

For his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values.
因为其精通历史和传记的艺术,以及他那捍卫崇高人类价值的光辉演说。

了解丘吉尔最好的方式是学习其演讲。丘吉尔在战时发表了多篇演讲(并且每一篇都是他亲笔所写),其中最著名的有三篇:Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat(热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水),这是他在1940年被任命为首相后在国会上的演说辞;Report the Miracle of Dunkirk(向议会报告敦刻尔克大撤退的奇迹),这是他在1940年在国会上的演说辞,这次演讲也产生了一个著名的金句:We shall fight on the beaches;Their Finest Hour(荣光时刻),也是他在国会上的演说辞。这几篇演讲充分展示了丘吉尔炉火纯青的演讲才能和高超的写作技巧,它们在用词、修辞和情感表达上可以学习的地方都非常多。我从这几篇演讲中找了几段进行分析:

Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous States have fallen or may fall into the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender, and even if, which I do not for a moment believe, this Island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in God’s good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old. (from Report the Miracle of Dunkirk)

演讲的背景是盟军完成敦刻尔克大撤退后,丘吉尔向英国人民表达决心,呼吁人们与纳粹战斗到底。上面这一段文字用词很简单,但读起来非常过瘾,因为它把十一个结构相同、意义并重、语气一致的句子排列成串(we shall…),集中使用排比的修辞手法,读起来非常具有感染力。

此外,这段话还用了对照(contrast)的手法:假设英国被占领,一方面是英国人民受到纳粹的压迫;另一方面是英国的海外武装继续与纳粹斗争,直到旧世界得到解放(…and even if, which I do not for a moment believe, this Island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle…)。通过这一对比能够突出英国军民的不屈不饶的反抗精神。

I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined the government: "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat." We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering. (from Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat)

上面这段话出自丘吉尔被任命为首相后在国会上的演讲。这几个句子非常自然和朴素,没有华丽的大词,但却有着震撼人心的力量。丘吉尔用”blood, toil, tears and sweat”这几个很简单的词来形象说明他鞠躬尽瘁死而后已的决心,这也使这句话成为千古传颂的名句。

You ask, what is our policy? I will say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: victory; victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. (from Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat)

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这段话集中使用了设问(You ask …),重复(to wage war … victory)以及排比(what is our policy? I will say… what is our aim? I can answer in one word…)这三种修辞手法,它们结合起来在语言上的表现力非常强,能够很容易感染读者的情绪。

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.' (from Their Finest Hour)

1940年巴黎沦陷,法国政府投降,英国处于孤立无援的境地。很多人担心“英国是否会投降?”丘吉尔在此时发表了演讲Their Finest Hour,对英国的军事力量进行了客观分析,给英国人民信心和力量。上面这段话出现在演讲的最后,丘吉尔将听众的思维拉到了一千年后的未来:如果英国能够挺过德国的入侵,那么一千年后的英联邦人民将会这样评价这场战争,“这是他们最光辉的时刻”。由此来强调今日英国人民的神圣责任,鼓舞他们抵抗外敌。

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